1) What is the use of volatile keyword?
The C's volatile keyword is a qualifier that tells the compiler not to optimize when applied to a variable. By declaring a variable volatile, we can tell the compiler that the value of the variable may change any moment from outside of the scope of the program. A variable should be declared volatile whenever its value could change unexpectedly and beyond the comprehension of the compiler.
In those cases it is required not to optimize the code, doing so may lead to erroneous result and load the variable every time it is used in the program. Volatile keyword is useful for memory-mapped peripheral registers, global variables modified by an interrupt service routine, global variables accessed by multiple tasks within a multi-threaded application.
The const keyword make sure that the value of the variable declared as const can't be changed. This statement holds true in the scope of the program. The value can still be changed by outside intervention. So, the use of const with volatile keyword makes perfect sense.
3) Can a pointer be volatile?
If we see the declaration volatile int *p, it means that the pointer itself is not volatile and points to an integer that is volatile. This is to inform the compiler that pointer p is pointing to an integer and the value of that integer may change unexpectedly even if there is no code indicating so in the program.
4) What is size of character, integer, integer pointer, character pointer?
- The sizeof character is 1 byte.
- Size of integer is 4 bytes.
- Size of integer pointer and character is 8 bytes on 64 bit machine and 4 bytes on 32 bit machine.
5) What is NULL pointer and what is its use?
The NULL is a macro defined in C. Null pointer actually means a pointer that does not point to any valid location. We define a pointer to be null when we want to make sure that the pointer does not point to any valid location and not to use that pointer to change anything. If we don't use null pointer, then we can't verify whether this pointer points to any valid location or not.
6) What is void pointer and what is its use?
The void pointer means that it points to a variable that can be of any type. Other pointers points to a specific type of variable while void pointer is a somewhat generic pointer and can be pointed to any data type, be it standard data type(int, char etc) or user define data type (structure, union etc.). We can pass any kind of pointer and reference it as a void pointer. But to dereference it, we have to type the void pointer to correct data type.
7) What is ISR?
An ISR(Interrupt Service Routine) is an interrupt handler, a callback subroutine which is called when a interrupt is encountered.
8) What is return type of ISR?
ISR does not return anything. An ISR returns nothing because there is no caller in the code to read the returned values.
9) What is interrupt latency?
Interrupt latency is the time required for an ISR responds to an interrupt.
10) How to reduce interrupt latency?
Interrupt latency can be minimized by writing short ISR routine and by not delaying interrupts for more time.