The objective of this report is to implement a solar electrical system and to provide ample information about installation of PV Panel. This report contains introductory information on solar energy application, Installation Calculation, Electric Connections, grid system, Measuring instruments, experimental setup and experimental result. For installation of PV Panel, There are many calculation to get better efficiency which is explained in detail in the following sections. Location of PV Panel is based on daily system energy requirement.
Major implementation of this would be in experiment of SATAH. In this experiment two blower fans work on electricity. This electricity gets from solar using solar PV Panel. Also it can be used in rural areas that too for different application. So objective is to install a PV panel in such a way that which would produce ample amount of electric energy for different requirement. Also it can be stored in battery as chemical energy when sunlight is not proper.
- Study and investigate the different types of Solar PV Panel
- Study different methods of Grid system
- Calculate Optimum inclination for Solar PV Panel.
- Investigation and testing of the different components and select the suitable ones which include the different component with their cost effective and durable arrangements.
Methods to use electric energy from Solar PV Panel are
On grid solar system
An on-grid or grid-tie solar photovoltaic system is when solar photovoltaic system is connected to a utility source or electric service provider. In this system pay for electricity which is consumed to the utility provider. On-grid solar systems are advantageous as the electricity is utilized by the owner during the day and any surplus is supplied to the grid, some utilities pay for this surplus electricity at a higher rate known as Feed In Tariff (FIT). During the evenings, when solar electricity is not generated, electricity is drawn from the grid avoiding the need for costly battery banks.
Off-grid solar system
An Off-grid or standalone photovoltaic system is when solar photovoltaic system is not connected to the utility grid and producing own electricity via solar PV panel. These systems will generally have a battery bank in order to store the electricity for use when needed. Basically, this type of solar system used where no proper grid supply.
Solar PV Panel Specification
Type: Eldora 130P
|Nominal Power||120 W||125 W||130 W||135 W|
|Nominal Voltage||17.45 V||17.6 V||17.64 V||17.69 V|
|Nominal Current||6.88 A||7.11 A||7.39 A||7.64 A|
|Open circuit voltage||21.54 V||21.78 V||22.03 V||22.14 V|
|Short circuit current||7.45 A||7.64 A||7.84 A||8.08 A|
Optimum Inclination of solar Panel
It is simplest to mount your solar panels at a fixed tilt and just leave them there. But because the sun is higher in the summer and lower in the winter, you can capture more energy during the whole year by adjusting the tilt of the panels according to the season.
The following table shows the effect of adjusting the angle, using a system at 40° latitude as an example. The comparison would be a little different for different latitudes.) Each option is compared with the energy received by the best possible tracker that always keeps the panel pointed directly at the sun.
|Fixed||Adj. 2 seasons||Adj. 4 Seasons||2-axis tracker|
|% of optimum||71.1||75.2||75.7||100|
In short, adjusting the tilt twice a year gives you a meaningful boost in energy. Adjusting four times a year produces only a little more, but could be important if you need to optimize production in spring and fall. You can jump to the section on the best fixed tilt angle, or skip to the sections on two-season or four-season adjusting.
First of all keep in mind that for northern hemisphere solar panel must be installed in south direction and vice-versa to southern hemisphere. If solar panels will have a fixed tilt angle, and want to get the most energy over the whole year, then this section is very helpful. A fixed angle is convenient, but note that there are some disadvantages. As mentioned above, you’ll get less power than if you adjusted the angle. Also, if there is snow, adjusting the panels to a steeper angle in winter makes it more likely that they will shed snow. A panel covered in snow produces little or no power.
Use one of these formulas to find the best angle from the horizontal at which the panel should be tilted:
- If your latitude is below 25°, use the latitude times 0.87.
- If your latitude is between 25° and 50°, use the latitude, times 0.76, plus 3.1 degrees.
This table gives some examples for different latitudes. It also shows the average insolation on the panel over the year (in kWh/m2 per day), and the energy received compared to the best possible tracker.
|Latitude||Full year angle||Avg. insolation on panel||% of optimum|
|25° (Key West, Taipei)||22.1||6.2||72.00%|
|30° (Houston, Cairo)||25.9||6.1||71.00%|
|35° (Albuquerque, Tokyo)||29.7||6||71.00%|
|40° (Denver, Madrid)||33.5||5.7||71.00%|
|45° (Minneapolis, Milano)||37.3||5.4||71.00%|
Adjusting the tilt twice a year
If solar panel are being gone to adjust the tilt of solar panels twice a year, and want to get the most energy over the whole year, then this section is helpful. The following table gives the best dates on which to adjust:
|Northern hemisphere||Southern hemisphere|
|Adjust to summer angle on||04/18/15||10/18/15|
|Adjust to autumn angle on||08/24/15||02/23/15|
|Adjust to winter angle on||10/07/15||04/08/15|
|Adjust to spring angle on||03/05/15||09/04/15|
If your latitude is between 25° and 50°, then the best tilt angle for summer is the latitude, times 0.93, minus 21 degrees. The best tilt angle for winter is the latitude, times 0.875, plus 19.2 degrees.
Adjusting the tilt four times a year
If solar panel is being gone to adjust the tilt of solar panels four times a year, and want to get the most energy over the whole year, then this section is helpful. The following table gives the best dates on which to adjust:
If your latitude is between 25° and 50°, then the best tilt angles are:
- For summer, take the latitude, multiply by 0.92, and subtract 24.3 degrees.
- For spring and autumn, take the latitude, multiply by 0.98, and subtract 2.3 degrees.
- For winter, take the latitude, multiply by 0.89, and add 24 degrees.
Two axis Tracker
If solar panel is being gone to adjust the tilt of solar panels in two axis then get maximum output power from solar PV panel.
As per requirement and budget, Installation procedure will be decided. According to HPL, Project on SATAH is also economical. So, fixed inclination is very economical for this project. Optimum inclination of solar PV panel for HPL is 17.3° in south direction.
Please go through attached report for Solar PV Panel Components Details and Fabrication.