A robot is an automatically guided machine, able to do tasks on its own. Another common characteristic is that by its appearance or movements, a robot often conveys a sense that it has intent or agency of its own. Teleoperation indicates operation of a machine at a distance. It is similar in meaning to the phrase "remote control" but is usually encountered in research, academic and technical environments.Our project involves the design and setup of a PC controlled miniaturized robotic car. The robotic version of the car can be remotely monitored and controlled. The movement of the car is controlled by the input devices of the PC such as the keyboard. The arrow keys of the keyboard is used specifically to control the movement of the car.
SYSTEM DESIGN & MODELLING
Design is the first step in the development phase for any engineered product or system. It may be defined as:”the process of applying various techniques and principles for the purpose of defining a devise, a process or a system in sufficient detail to permit its physical realization”. Computer software design like engineering design approaches in other disciplines changes continually as new methods, better analysis, and broader understanding evolve.
Using one of a number of design methods the design steps produces a data design, an architectural design and a procedural design. Preliminary design is concerned with transformation requirements to data and software architectures. Detail design focus on refinement to architectural representation that lead to detailed structure and algorithmic representation for software. The data design transforms the information domain model created during analysis into the data structures that will be required to implement the software. The architectural design defines the relationship among major structural components into a procedural description of the software.
Elements of design
The components of information system described using requirements analysis are the focal point in system design. Analysis must design the following elements:
- Data Flows
- Data Stores
The flow analysis permits analysts to isolate areas of interest in the organization and to study them by examining the data that enter the process and seeing how they are changed when they leave the process. In the Data Flow Diagrams, the physical system is translated into a logical description that focuses on data and processes. It is advantageous to emphasis data and processes in order to focus on the actual activities that occur and the resources needed, rather than one who performs the work.
In the logical design, description of the inputs, outputs, databases and procedures are given in a format that meets the requirements. Data Flow Diagram (DFD) is used to define the flow of the system and its resources such as information. Data flow diagrams are a way of expressing system requirements in a graphical manner. DFD represents one of the most ingenious tools of clarifying system requirements and identifying major transformations that will become programs in the system design. In the normal convention, logical DFD can be completed using only 4 notations.
The DFD at the simplest level is referred to as the 'CONTEXT ANALYSIS DIAGRAM'. These are expanded by level, each explaining its process in detail. Processes are numbered for easy identification and are normally labeled in block letters. Each data flow is labeled for easy understanding.
Input design is the process of converting user inputs into computer-based format. The project requires a set of information from the user to prepare a report, when organized input data are needed. In the system design phase, the expanded DFD identifies logical data flow, data stores and destination. Input data is collected and organized into groups of similar data. The goal behind designing input data is to make it free from logical errors. The input entry to all type of clients is the user name and password only. If they are valid the client is allowed to enter into the software.
A code is an ordered collection of symbols to provide unique identification of data. The following are the characters of a good code generation:
Characteristics of good coding
- Uniform Size and Format
The complete system architecture comprises of a software system that lets the user control the car through a PC using the arrow keys. Here the software has to detect each of the keystrokes given by the user and then transmit the correct character to the micro-controller in relation to the direction specified by the arrow keys used by the user.
The software thus has two main parts:
1) Detection of keystroke by user: Interrupt based detection of the keystrokes may be done by utilizing the bioskey() function defined in the bios.h header file for the TurboC compiler.
2) Transmission of character via RS232 port: Serial transmission via the RS232 port can be controlled by using the bioscom() function defined in the bios.h header file for the TurboC compiler.
The embedded system architecture comprises of a similar structure wherein data should be received checked for its relation to a specific direction then the corresponding lead in the remote controller set high. The embedded system resides in the micro-controller.
The implementation is the stage in the project where the theoretical design is turned into a working system and is giving confidence on the new system for the users that it will work efficiently. It involves careful planning investigation on the current system and its constraints on its implementation ,design of methods to achieve the change over , an evaluation, of change over methods .Apart from planning major task of preparing the implementation are education and training of users.
The most complex system being implemented the more involved will be the system analysis and design effort required just for implementation .An implementation coordinating committee based on policies of individual organization have been implementation of the system. According to this plan, the activities are carried out, discussions made regarding the equipment and resources and the additional equipment has to be acquired to implement the new system.
Implementation is the final important phase. The most critical stage in achieving a successful new system and in giving the users confidence that the new system will work and be effective. The system can be implemented after thorough testing is done and if it is found to working according to the specification .This method also offers the greater security since the whole system can be take over if the errors are found or initially to hand in certain type of transactions while using the new systems.
At the beginning of the development phase a preliminary implementation plan is created to schedule and manage the many different activities that must be integrated into plan .The implementation plan is updated throughout the development phase. Culminating in a changeover plan for the operation phase .The major elements of implementation plan are test plan training plan equipment installation and a conversation plan.