This Computer Science Project is based on Energy efficient Secure Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks, discuss in detail about various aspects of energy efficient wireless sensor networks implementation and its use in real world applications. Wireless sensor networks can sense changes in environment and send it across to control center for various analysis. Major advantage of sensor nodes are that they can be deployed over large areas in hostile environments for military and civilian use. Secure routing algorithms are used to send the data collected by sensor networks to the data center.Sensors are small devices with limited data storage, power backup and analysis capability. Since sensors have limited backup power and analysis capability, security mechanism for sensor network must be energy efficient.
In this thesis we discuss about Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) based encryption for energy efficient secure routing. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric key block cryptography standard published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). AES is a session based cryptography system. During expiration of each session, session key is changed. A network is divide into into number of clusters. Each cluster have a cluster head. Sensor to Sink communication is a three step process. Sensor to cluster-head and to Sink.
Various challenges faced by sensor network are
- Ad-hoc Deployment
- Quality of Service
- Unattended operation
Now we look at the design of the system. During installation of sensor node a unique session key will be assigned. Sensors which receives data from the field using Blowish Algorithm to encrypt it. The encrypted data will be sent to gateways. This ensures data security as well as less energy consumption compared to other other cryptography algorithms. After executing a process in a session, a new session key will be generated using a pseudo random function and current session key and send it across to the associated gateway. New session key will be broadcasted to its cluster's sensors by the gateway, for data encryption of the new session. By this mechanism a session key has been for every session by the sink.
Grid base data aggregation schemes are based on dividing entire region monitored by a sensor network into several grids. In grid based data aggregation, a set of sensors is assigned as data aggregators in fixed regions of the sensor network. The sensors in a particular grid transmit the data directly to the data aggregator of that grid. Hence, the sensors within a grid do not communicate with each other. In grid based data aggregation, the data aggregator is fixed in each grid and it aggregates the data from all the sensors within the grid. This is similar to cluster-based data aggregation in which the cluster heads are fixed. Grid based data aggregation is suitable for mobile environments such as military surveillance and weather forecasting and adapts to dynamic changes in the network and event mobility.