Indoor Skeleton Modelling Using Ultrasonic Sensors

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Indoor Skeleton Modelling using Ultrasonic Sensors is an implementation of software along with hardware to do just what its name implies: to model any indoor room or building using arduino and ultrasonic sensors by capturing and processing the distance. Arduino is an open-source single-board micro controller, designed to make the process of using electronics in multidisciplinary projects more accessible. Ultrasonic sensors are required to perform measurements between moving or stationary objects. The ultrasonic sensors generate high frequency sound waves and evaluate the echo which is received back by the sensor. Sensors calculate the time interval between sending the signal and receiving the echo to determine the distance to an object. The distance from these sensors provide the dimensions required for developing the desired 3D model of a room or a building. This distance is send to the OpenGL program in the PC developed using OpenGL interface. The program processes the data received using the appropriate functions available and create a 3D model of the desired room or building. This model is displayed on the created window.

 We will have a look different transmission techniques used in Skeleton Modelling 

Transverse transmission

This technique uses a transmitter, a receiver and a pair transducers. Transmitter a receiver will be facing each other and will be placed on either side of the skeletal site that is going to get tested. The method has been applied to the measurement at finger phalanxes, calcaneus and patella. Calcaneal devices show the greatest diversity of technical approaches with fixed single point systems employing either water bath or ultrasonic gel coupling between the transducers and the skin, and imaging devices with water bath. Classical substitution technique is used for Ultrasonic measurements at the calcaneus. Accuracy and precision are affected by the location within the bone interrogated by the ultrasonic beam. The ultrasound bone imaging system (UBIS) have the potential to evaluate standardized regions of interest in all patients and to reproduce the analysis of the same region of bone in series of scans acquired over long duration follow up period

Axial transmission

This technique currently uses a set of transducers for transmitting and receiving which is placed on the skin along the bone. This is used to measure the velocity of the first arriving signal that has propagated along a fixed distance of the cortical layer of the bone, parallel to its long axis. Several measuring sequences combining direct transmission and pulse echo measurements may be used to assess soft tissue thickness and correct for soft tissue errors. 

Reflection techniques

Reflection techniques such as ultrasound critical reflectometry (UCR) and ultrasonic back scatter may be useful for the measurement of specific material and structural properties. In addition, skeletal sites, which are difficult to reach by transmission could be evaluated by such reflection techniques. 

References

http://www.utc.fr/esb/events/PDF/Laugier.PDF

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