Optical Fiber Sensors In Medicine

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There has been much advancement in the instruments used in medicine since last three decades. The use of optical fibres in medicine field has created a revolution. The ability of these fibers to transmit light over great distances with low power loss and the interaction of light with a measured system provide the basis of these sensing devices. These sensors are electrically passive and consequently immune to electromagnetic disturbances. They are geometrically flexible and corrosion resistant.

A great number of optical fibre sensors have been developed for biomedical applications. The potential of optical fibres in the sensing of chemical species as led to the development of a number of optical fibre chemical sensors. They have also been devised for measurement of physical parameters such as temperature, pressure and displacement. However, the most direct use of optical fibres in medicine is for gaining access to otherwise inaccessible regions whether for imaging these areas, as in endoscopy or as the delivery system for light in laser surgery.

There is an instrument called sensor assembly which contain three fibres that measure PH, partial pressure of CO2, partial pressure of O2, bundled together with the thermo couple to measure pressure. The paper aims at discussing various types, principles and working of optical fibre sensors.

OPTICAL FIBRE SENSORS

The development of optical fibers has given rise to a number of transducers, which find applications in the medical field. The ability of these fibers to transmit light over great distances with low power loss and the interaction of light with a measured system provide the basis of these sensing devices. These sensors are electrically passive and consequently immune to electromagnetic disturbances. They are geometrically flexible and corrosion resistant. They can be miniaturized and are most suitable for telemetry applications.

A great number of optical fibre sensors have been developed for biomedical applications.The potential of optical fibres in the sensing of chemical species as led to the development of a number of optical fibre chemical sensors. They have also been devised for measurement of physical parameters such as temperature, pressure and displacement. However, the most direct use of optical fibres in medicine is for gaining access to otherwise inaccessible regions whether for imaging these areas, as in endoscopy or as the delivery system for light in laser surgery.

The optical transducers are based on glass or plastic fibres, about 100 to 250 micrometers in diameter, has found in fibre optic communication systems. The initial optical fibre had poor transmission characteristics, but with in a decade, fibre losses were reduced for 1000db per km in 1966 to below 1db per km in 1976. Such improvements in the manufacture and theoretical understanding of light transmission in optical beam have lead to their wide spread use in a variety of applications, including that of clinical medicine.

As there many advantages in using the fibre optics they are used in many advanced instruments which can be applied in many fields like medicine, electronic communication, etc. There are non-electrical, cost is less so they are apt in applying in medicine. In future there are going to do a miracle in medical and other fields. They change the future of instrumental technology.

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