Biodiesel - Tomorrows Fuel

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Biodiesel is an alternative to conventional diesel fuel made from renewable resources, such as non-edible vegetable oils. The oil from seeds (e.g., Jatropha and Pongamia) can be converted to a fuel commonly referred to as "Biodiesel." No engine modifications are required to use biodiesel in place of petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel can be mixed with petroleum-based diesel in any proportion.  This interest is based on a number of properties of biodiesel including the fact that it is produced from a renewable domestic source, its biodegradability, and its potential to reduce exhaust emissions. The climate change is presently an important element of energy use and development. Biodiesel is considered "climate neutral" because all of the carbon dioxide released during consumption had been sequestered out of the atmosphere during crop growth.  The use of biodiesel resulted in lower emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter.

Biodiesel also increased catalytic converter efficiency in reducing particulate emissions. Chemical characterization also revealed lower levels of some toxic and reactive hydrocarbon species when biodiesel fuels were used. The fuel consumption in the world particularly in developing countries has been growing at alarming rate. Petroleum prices approaching record highs and they will deplete within few decades, it is clear that more can be done to utilize domestic non-edible oils while enhancing our energy security. The economic benefits include support to the agriculture sector, tremendous employment opportunities in plantation and processing. Jatropha and Pongamia are known just crude plants which grow on eroded soils and require a hot climate and hardly any water to survive. These are the strong reasons, enforcing the development of biodiesel plants.

 
Biodiesel is defined as mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats which conform to ASTM D6751 ( American Society for Testing & Materials ). It is the name of a clean burning alternative fuel, produced from domestic, renewable resources and animal fats. Today’s diesel engines require a clean –burning, stable fuel that performs well under a variety of operation conditions. It is the only alternative fuel that can be used directly in any existing, unmodified diesel engine. Because it has similar properties to petroleum diesel fuel, biodiesel can be blended in any ratio with petroleum diesel fuel. Specifications for use in diesel engines. Biodiesel refers to the pure fuel before blending with diesel fuel. 
 
Biodiesel blends are denoted as “BXX” with “XX” representing the percentage of biodiesel contained in the blend (ie: B20 is 20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel). It is simple to use, biodegradable, nontoxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. It is made though a chemical process called transesterification where by the glycerin is separated from the fat or vegetable oil. Fuel-grade biodiesel must be produced to strict industry specifications in order to insure proper performance. It is better for the environment because it is made from, renewable resources and has lower emissions compared to petroleum diesel. It is less toxic than table salt and bio degrades as fast as sugar. It can be made in India from renewable resources such as Jatropha and Pongamia. Its use decreases our dependence on foreign oil and contributes to our own economy. 
 
BIODIESEL PRODUCTION
 
The production of Biodiesel,or alkyl esters, is well known . There are three basic routes to ester production from oils and fats.
 
1. Base catalyzed transesterification of the oil with alcohol.
2. Direct acid catalyzed esterification of the oil with methanol.
3. Conversion of the oil to fatty acids, and then to alkyl esters with acid catalysis.

The majority of the alkyl esters produced today are done with the base catalyzed reaction because it is the most economic for several reasons.

  • Low temperature (150F) and pressure (20psi) processing.
  • High conversion (98%) with minimal side reactions and reaction time.
  • Direct conversion to methyl ester with no intermediate steps.
 
 Biodiesel Production
VEG OIL: Jatropha, pongamia.
ALCOHOLS:  Methanol, Ethanol.
CATALYST:  Sodium hydroxide, Potassium hydroxide.
 

Biodiesel is safe to handle because it is biodegradable and non-toxic. Biodiesel reduces all the emission. Biodiesel can be used alone or mixed in any amount with petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel runs in any conventional, unmodified diesel engine.  No engine modifications are necessary to use biodiesel and there is no “engine conversion”.  Increased utilization of renewable biofuels results in significant microeconomic benefits to both the urban and rural sectors, and the balance of trade.  It is clear that more can be done to utilize domestic surpluses of vegetable oils while enhancing our energy security. Because biodiesel can be manufactured using existing industrial production capacity, and used with conventional equipment, it provides substantial opportunity for immediately addressing our energy security issues.

Attachments:
Download this file (Biodiesel Production.doc)Biodiesel Production[Seminar Report]142 Kb

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