Embedded systems are fast achieving ubiquity, blurring the lines between science fiction and hard reality. These systems are found in almost every electronic device in use today. In fact Embedded Systems is not a new technology, but it has come into limelight only recently due to the convergence of many technologies like telecom, consumer electronics, automobiles, factory automation, smart-cards, traffic control using the immense power of the Microprocessor. Embedded Systems have penetrated our lives in such a radical way that most of us may not even notice what lies under the hood of many commonly used gizmos and gadgets. Thus, we should have an idea about how embedded systems plays an important role in our day-to-day life.
GPS (Global Positioning System), a constellation of 24 NAVSTARs (Navigation Satellites for Time and Ranging) in six groups of four owned and operated by the Department Of Defence (DOD), is the first positioning system to offer highly precise location data for any point on the planet, in any weather. Today’s GPS receivers are extremely accurate. WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System) can give us even better accuracy to an average of up to five times better. We can also get better accuracy with Differential GPS (DGPS) to an accuracy of three to five meters. For example Military-approved equipment can pinpoint accuracy with one meter. The signals that are transmitted by GPS satellite are two low power radio signals, designated L1 and L2.A GPS signal contain information such as which satellite is transmitting information, current date and time, and orbital information. There are some actors that can degrade the GPS signals, which are explained briefly in the foregoing papers. There are wide ranges of applications of GPS on land, at sea, and in the air .The first and most obvious applications of GPS is the simple determination of a “position “ or location. In future this GPS may become very much accurate as currently it is.
Global Positioning System, popularly known as GPS, is one of the history’s most exciting and revolutionary developments, and new uses for it are constantly being discovered. GPS shows the position of any object exactly on earth, any time, in any weather and anywhere .The Global Positioning System consists of three parts space segment, control segment and user segment. The cost of maintaining the system is approximately US$ 400 million per year, including the replacement of ageing satellites. The GPS satellites, 24 in all, 11000 nautical miles above the earth, transmit signals that can be detected by anyone with GPS receiver. Using this receiver, we can be able to determine the location of the object with great precision usually of about several centimetres with the help of advanced technology.
All living organisms consist of cells. In each cell there is the same set of chromosomes. Chromosomes are strings of DNA and serve as a model for the whole organism. A chromosome consists of genes, blocks of DNA. Each gene encodes a particular protein. Basically, it can be said that each gene encodes a trait, for example color of eyes. Possible settings for a trait (e.g. blue, brown) are called alleles. Each gene has its own position in the chromosome. This position is called locus.Complete set of genetic material (all chromosomes) is called genome. Particular set of genes in genome is called genotype. The genotype is with later development after birth base for the organism's phenotype, its physical and mental characteristics, such as eye color, intelligence etc. During reproduction, recombination (or crossover) first occurs. Genes from parents combine to form a whole new chromosome. The newly created offspring can then be mutated. Mutation means that the elements of DNA are a bit changed. This changes are mainly caused by errors in copying genes from parents.
The world has become highly constrained by time. The ever-changing scenario of the world demands replacement of human supervision by automated systems. Embedded system is the brainchild of the intellectuals, which has proven to be such desired systems. This paper is an attempt to throw some light on this topic. This gives an overview about some concepts of embedded systems. The concept starts with the classification of three basic parts
- Hardware concepts of embedded systems
- Software concepts of embedded systems
- Applications of embedded systems
Electronic watchdog is used for your house that sounds to inform you that somebody is at gate or passing through it. The circuit comprises of a transmitter unit and receiver units, which are mounted face to face on the opposite pillars of the gate or door such that the IR beam transmitted through IR LED1 of the transmitter, get interrupted when someone is standing at the gate or passing through it.
Today’s fast growing world needs fast communication ,either it may be voice or data. This calls for a new technology which is faster than all existing technologies in mobile communication and hence can replace technologies like GPRS. Enhanced Data for Global Evolution(EDGE) is such a technology .EDGE is a member of global system for mobile communications(GSM). In short EDGE is a technology which enhances data rates for mobile communications.
This paper provides an introduction into the basics of echo cancellation. The paper is kept general but it emphasizes on the emerging Voice over IP (VoIP) market. However, most aspects can also applied to Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) or wireless networks. This paper shows why and where echo cancellation is required, what echo is, and what causes it. It also gives an overview of the standards involved in echo cancellation. The digital echo canceller, meets the requirements of the VoIP market. This paper shows how it can be integrated into a VoIP system and the advantages the solution offers.
Basically the circuit consists of a bridge network which is used to ensures that transistor T1 gets voltage of proper polarity, irrespective of the polarity of the telephone lines. To this bridge circuit the telephone line is connected.Resistors R1 and R2 act as a voltage divider. The voltage appearing across R2 is fed to The ‘MIC-IN’ socket of the tape recorder. The second part of the circuit which consists of two transistors T1 and T2 that controls relay RL1, which is used to switch on/off the Tape recorder. The tape recorder should be in recording mode. The values of R1 And R2 depends on input impedance of the tape recorder’s MIC-IN terminals.
The field of digital image processing has experienced continuous and significant expansion in recent years. The usefulness of this technology is apparent in many different disciplines covering medicine through remote sensing. The advances and wide availability of image processing hardware has further enhanced the usefulness of image processing. The broad areas of Application of Digital Image Processing include Medical applications, restorations and enhancements, image transmission and coding, color processing, remote sensing, robot vision, hybrid techniques, facsimile, pattern recognition, registration techniques, multidimensional image processing, image processing architectures and workstations, video processing programmable DSP's for video coding, high-resolution display, high-quality color representation, super high definition image processing.
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