Microwave Power Transmission Technologies

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A solar power satellite (SPS) is a renewable energy system. Solar Power Satellites (SPS) converts solar energy in to micro waves and sends that microwaves in to a beam to a receiving antenna on the Earth for conversion to ordinary Electricity. The SPS concept, first proposed in 1968 in the United States, has recently started attracting increased public attention as a promising energy system that can be used to resolve global environmental and energy problems. SPS is a clean, large-scale, stable electric power source.

For SPS microwave power transmission (MPT) is essential. MPT contains microwave beam, which can be directed to any desired location on Earth surface. This beam collects Solar Energy and converts it into Electrical Energy. This concept is more advantageous than conventional methods. The SPS will be a central attraction of space and energy technology in coming decades. It is not a pollutant but more aptly, a man made extension of the naturally generated electromagnetic spectrum that provides heat and light for our sustenance.

One of the major global issues we are facing today is the energy problem combined with a shortage of natural energy resources and increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 . If we continue to rely only on nonrenewable resources , they will be completely consumed within 100– 150 years. Furthermore, large amounts of fossil fuel consumption increase the CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere, which raises serious environmental concerns. The situation has become even more serious after the failure of the Fukushima nuclear plant in 2011, because it has been revealed that a low-carbon nuclear plant has substantial safety concerns.

For these reasons, a clean, renewable, and safe energy system is urgently required in the near future. One of the potential candidates for the required energy system, and probably the most realistic solution, is the SPS, which can be used to harvest solar energy in space and to transmit it to the ground. The sun’s unlimited constant energy supply is available in space, where solar energy harvesting is unaffected by weather conditions and day/night cycles. The time average solar power available per unit area in space is five to ten times larger than that available on the ground. The flight segment, which is called the solar power satellite, converts sunlight into direct current (dc) power using photo voltaic cells and then generates a micro- wave beam down to the ground segment. The conversion efficiency from dc to microwave energy is expected to be 80% in the near future.

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